Every religion has its rules and notions. According to Hinduism, Time (Kala) is a manifestation of God (Isvara). In his absolute state God is timeless, eternal, permanent, unchangeable, indestructible, and without movement and duality. Being indivisible, the divisions of time do not exist. However, it exists in him as an indistinguishable and indivisible aspect. In the projected worlds, it becomes divisible and manifests as a cyclical and repetitive phenomenon. The distinctive theories of time and cosmology make Hinduism unique. Time is considered as the cycle of creation and destruction. The Puranas divides each cycle of creation into four divisions called Yugas. Together, they constitute one Mahayuga (great epoch). Each Yuga has a specific time frame, a definite purpose and certain characteristic features that distinguish it from the others. Their sequence is fixed. However, the time frame of each Yuga varies. The time is divided into 4 Yugas like a cycle consisting of 4 laps, Satya Yuga – 4*432000 years, Treta Yuga – 3*432000 years, Dvapara Yuga – 2*432000 years and Kali Yuga – 432000 years. The ages see a gradual decline of dharma, wisdom, knowledge, intellectual capability, emotional and physical strength.
Satya Yuga: The first and best Yuga: The Satya Yuga also called Sat Yuga, or Kṛta Yuga in Hinduism is the first of the four Yugas when humanity is governed by Gods and every manifestation or work is close to the purest ideal. It is sometimes referred to as the “Golden Age”. It was the age of truth and perfection. This Yuga has Zero Percent of Crime and Hundred Percent of Kindness. The Satya Yuga lasts 1,728,000 years. The Goddess Dharma (depicted in the form of a cow), which symbolizes morality, stood on all four legs during this period. Later on in the Treta Yuga, it would become three, followed by two in the Dvapara Yuga. Currently, in the immoral age of Kali, it stands on one leg. The Krita Yuga was so named because there was one religion, and all men were saintly: therefore they were not required to perform religious ceremonies. Humans were gigantic, powerfully built, honest, youthful, vigorous, erudite and virtuous. The Vedas were one. All mankind could attain to supreme blessedness. There was no agriculture or mining as the earth yielded those riches on its own. The weather was pleasant and everyone was happy. There were no religious sects. There was no disease or fear of anything.
Amongst the four eras, the Satya Yuga is the most important one. Knowledge, meditation, and self-punishment hold special importance in this era. All the pillars of Dharma are present in totality. During Satya Yuga, all people engage only in good deeds. Ashrams become devoid of wickedness and deceit. Natyam (such as Bharatanatyam), according to Natya Shastra, did not exist in the Satya Yuga “because it was the time when all people were happy”. Writing is unnecessary because people communicate directly by way of their thoughts; as are temples, since people continually feel the omnipresence of God. The only text which was considered credible and was followed was Manu’s Dharma Shastra. Also known as Manusmriti, It is the most authoritative source of ancient Hindu law. The four main castes, which Manusmriti says were instituted by Brahma, are Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas, and Shudras. Traditionally, Brahmins were priests and teachers, Kshatriyas were rulers and warriors, Vaishyas were merchants and farmers, and Shudras were peasants and laborers. Those who were beneath the caste system altogether were known as Dalits or “Untouchables.” Matsya(the fish), Kurma (the turtle), Varaha (the boar) and Narasimha (the man-lion), the first four incarnations of Vishnu, appear in this era. The average life expectancy of a human being in Satya Yuga was approximately 4000 years.
The Vaishya (traders) of this era shall engage in trade and business very justly and honestly. Brahmins shall be engaged continually in religious sacrifices, study, teaching, charity, etc. The Kshatriya (warriors) shall be inclined towards the exhibition of valiance and might. The Shudras shall sincerely serve the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas. This form of religion shall remain intact and absolute in the Satya Yuga. This era was devoid of agricultural activities or any other type of activity. Just by mere contemplation, one would beget desired results. People in this era would never fall ill. No one would try to point out faults or demerits in anyone’s personality. The personality was not plagued by demerits like ego, sorrow, aggression, jealousy, hatred, backbiting, fear, anger and lethargy.
Though people were segregated on the basis of the Varnashram method, they would all respond to their faith in the Vedas and the Sanatan Dharma because these people were devoid of selfishness, and they would effortlessly attain sublimity or union with God, which is a salient feature of Satya Yuga. Very valiant, mighty, intelligent and people gifted with all good qualities would be born in this era. In this way, all these divine people would be bestowed with sublime faith and piousness. They would surprisingly give birth to thousands of children. Great sages embellished with divinity would be born in this era.
End of kali yuga and the start of Satya yuga: The timeline indicates that the ascending Kali Yuga, which is the current era in which we are living, will end in 2025 CE. The full manifestation of the next Yuga – the ascending Dwapara – will take place in 2325 CE, after a transitional period of 300 years. The ascending Dwapara Yuga will then be followed by two more Yugas: the ascending Treta Yuga and the ascending Satya Yuga, which will complete the 12,000-year ascending cycle. The Mahabharata has also prophesied the same thing but with further elaborations on how conditions will be when Satya-Yuga begins again: `Sin will be completely destroyed and virtue will flourish, men will again be engaged in religious rites’. Controversy about cycles is based on hypothetical theories, based on Sacred scriptures interpretations, so, therefore, also subjective, to multiple interpretations regarding in what age we live. Some profoundly wise people said- ‘Kali Yuga is for hypocrites and fools. They always live in it. The wise and the truthful always live in Satya Yuga and try to lead a truthful life. Time cannot change us unless we try to change ourselves. Avoid foolish speculations and imaginations. Develop the right discrimination and be wise. Then you always live in Satya Yuga.’